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PROSTATE CANCER




Introduction:- 


Prostate is a glandular organ gift best in men.  It surrounds the neck of bladder & the first a part of urethra and condributes a secretion to the semen. The gland is conical in form and measures three cm in vertical diameter and four cm in transverse diameter.It has got five lobes anterior,posterior,two lateral and a median lobe.Since  the primary a part of the urethra skip through it any lesion inside the prostate will produce problem in passing urine.

Diseases of the prostate gland:- 


1) Prostatitis:-

This is the inflamation of the prostate gland because of bacterial contamination.

2) Benign expansion of the prostate:-

This is a non cancerous tumour of  the prostate visible after the age of 50.  3,Cancer of the prostate:-This is the 4th most not unusual cause of dying from malignant sicknesses in men.

Cancer of the prostate.


Cancer of the prostate is without delay connected with the male intercourse hormones(androgens).If the degrees of sex hormone will increase the growth rate of most cancers also increases.It is located that after the removel of testes there is marked discount within the size of tumour.

Site of tumour:-


Prostate most cancers is seen particularly inside the posterior lobe.Non cancerous growth is seen in other lobes.

Changes in the gland in cancer:-


The gland becomes difficult with irregular floor with lack of ordinary lobulation .Histologically prostate cancer is an adeno carcinoma(cancer of the epithelial cells within the gland)

Growth :-


Growth price could be very rapid in prostate most cancers .The tumour compresses the urethra and bring problem in urination.

Spread of tumour:-


Metastasis in most cancers of prostate may be very early.

1) Local spread:-

From the posterior lobe the cancer cells go to the lateral lobes and seminal vesicles.Tumour cells additionally flow to the neck and base of the urinary bladder.

2) Lymphatic unfold:-

Through the lymph vessels cancer cells reach the inner and outside illiac organization of lymph nodes.From there cells circulate to retroperitonial(Behind the peritonium) and mediastinal lymph nodes(in the chest)

3) Spread via the blood:-

Spread of most cancers cells takeplace through the periprostatic venous plexus and reaches the vertebral veins even as coughing and sneezing and in the end enders the vertebral bodies of the lumbar vertebrae.

Signs and signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:--

Signs and symptoms rely upon the degree of the cancer. The following signs and symptoms can be visible.

1) No signs and symptoms:-

Tumourr iss smalll andd onlyy withinn thee posteriorr lobee.  This is identified accidentely.

2) Slight issue in urination:-

Here the tumour is enlarged and urethra is slightly compressed.Shortly there can be common urge for urination with difficult urination.

Three) When the tumour spread to all close by areas along with neck of bladder and urethra there can be painful urination with bleeding.Urine comes drop via drop.

Four) Retention of urine:-

When the urethra is completely compressed there may be retention of urine.This can lead to hydronephrosis, renal failure ect.In this circumstance patient may additionally get convulsions due to renal failure and eventually coma.

5) Signs of metastasis:-

Some sufferers come with the signs and symptoms and symptoms of metastasis.

A) Lumbo sacral ache because of spread of cancer cells to lumbar and sacral vertebrae.

B) Fracture of backbone because of cancerous increase within the spine.

C) Swelling, pain and fluid collection inside the stomach due to lesion inside the stomach.

D) Respiratory court cases because of cancer of mediastinal lymphnodes and lungs.

E) General weak point due to unfold of most cancers to one of a kind parts of the body.

F) Anaemia because of involment of bone marrow and extended destruction of RBCs.

Clinical exam :-

Includes consistent with rectal examination to feel the prostate gland,palpation of abdomen to experience the swelling in kidneys and any tumours.Patient is tested from head to foot to find out any lesions.

Investigations:-

1) Complete blood investigations;-

RBC,WBC,Platlets,ESR,bleeding time ,clotting time ect.

2) Urine evaluation:-

Microscopic exam to locate pus cells,occult blood,casts,Crystals ect.

Three) Renal function checks:-

Blood urea stage,serum creatinine stage,electrolyte degree ect.

Four) Serum acid phosphatase:-

Increased in most cancers of prostate.

5) x-ray of the backbone:-

To stumble on any tumour or fracture.

6) Ultra sonography;-

Gives concept about prostate,bladder,kidney ect.

7) C T test:-

More specific data approximately organs and tumour.

Eight) MRI of the spine:-

Gives special information about backbone ,disc and nearby soft tissues.

Nine) Lymphangiography:-

Gives idea approximately lymphatic spread of most cancers.

10) Biopsy to verify cancer:-

Biopsy is taken from the tumour and is send for histopathological exam below the microscope.This will stumble on the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment:-

1) If there's retention of urine catheterisation is wanted.
2) Dialysis if kidney failure.
Three) If there's coma tracking of all crucial functions along side parentral nutrients and electolyte deliver.
4) Specific remedy is prostatectomy(elimination of prostate)

Partial prostatectomy :-

Here most effective the affected lobe is removed.

Radical prostatectomy :-

Total removal of prostate along side close by lymphnodes.

5, Hormone therapy :-

Stilbestrol is given to lessen tumour increase.Since this treatement will increase the hazard for cardiovascular ailment phosphorylated diethyle stilbesterol is used in recent times.

6) Chemotherapy:-Drugs like cyclophosphamide, cisoplatim ect are given.

7) Radiotherapy is also accomplished for some cases.

Eight) Homoeopathy:-

Homoeopathic pills like carcinocin, conium, sabal, crotalus, thuja, iodum, selinium, staphysagria, sulphur ect can be given in keeping with signs and symptoms.Constitutional homoeopathic medicinal drug will give incredible relief and can boom the life span.

9) Yoga and meditation is likewise healpful.

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